On March 25, the European Commission initiated a wide-ranging investigation into Apple, Amazon, Alphabet (Google’s parent company), and Meta (formerly known as Facebook) regarding their compliance with the new Digital Markets Act (DMA). This investigation marks the EU’s initial significant effort to address the anti-competitive practices of major technology companies that are referred to as “gatekeepers” by the commission.

The Digital Markets Act is a regulatory framework designed to promote fair competition and prevent anti-competitive behavior in the digital market. It aims to address issues such as unfair practices, lack of transparency, and the abuse of market dominance by large tech companies.

Through this investigation, the European Commission seeks to assess whether Apple, Amazon, Alphabet, and Meta have been engaging in practices that violate the provisions of the Digital Markets Act. These companies, due to their significant market power and influence, are considered gatekeepers in the digital ecosystem, and the investigation aims to evaluate their compliance with the regulations established by the EU.

The European Commission’s inquiry is a significant step in the EU’s efforts to regulate and enforce fair competition in the digital marketplace and ensure that the actions of major tech companies align with the principles outlined in the Digital Markets Act.

EU Targets Apple, Google, and Meta Over Alleged Anti-Competitive Practices

According to the announcement, the European Commission has initiated five distinct investigations targeting the business practices of Apple, Google (Alphabet), and Meta (formerly known as Facebook). These investigations aim to examine whether the practices of these companies are in violation of the rules outlined in the Digital Markets Act (DMA) regarding fair competition.

The European Commission’s decision to launch these investigations reflects its commitment to scrutinizing the actions of major tech companies and ensuring compliance with the DMA regulations. By conducting these separate inquiries, the Commission seeks to thoroughly assess the business practices of Apple, Google, and Meta to determine whether they have engaged in any activities that contravene the principles of fair competition outlined in the DMA.

The investigations represent a significant step in the EU’s efforts to regulate the conduct of large tech companies and address concerns related to their market dominance and potential anti-competitive practices.


The investigation by the European Commission will specifically focus on certain policies of Alphabet (Google’s parent company) and Apple that are deemed restrictive and potentially anti-competitive. One area of scrutiny is the “anti-steering” policies implemented by these companies. These policies prohibit tech firms from preventing businesses from offering cheaper alternatives for purchases outside of their respective app stores.

The Commission’s investigation, conducted under the Digital Markets Act (DMA), will examine Alphabet’s rules related to steering on Google Play and self-preferencing on Google Search. It will also assess Apple’s rules on steering in the App Store and the choice screen for Safari. Additionally, Meta (formerly Facebook) will be investigated for its “pay or consent” model, which requires users of Facebook and Instagram to either purchase a subscription for an ad-free experience or consent to data tracking on the free version.

In addition to these specific policies, the investigation will also look into Apple’s adherence to user preferences. This inquiry aims to determine whether Apple has provided users with the ability to uninstall default apps and change default settings for services like web browsers on iOS devices.

Furthermore, Alphabet will face scrutiny regarding its dominance in search engine recommendations. The investigation will examine whether Google has unfairly prioritized its specialized Google Shopping data over comparable search results from competitors.

The European Commission’s investigations are intended to ensure compliance with the DMA and prevent potential abuses of market dominance. By examining these policies and practices, the Commission aims to promote fair competition and protect the interests of consumers within the digital marketplace.

Rigorous Enforcement of the Digital Markets Act (DMA): Promoting Fair Competition in the Digital Market

Title: EU’s Digital Markets Act (DMA) Enforcement: Fines and Investigations Shake Tech Giants

The Digital Markets Act (DMA), launched in November 2022 and fully effective since March 7, 2024, aims to establish fair competition in digital markets, challenging the dominance of big tech companies.

EU Commissioner for Competition, Margrethe Vestager, has expressed concerns that tech firms are not aligning with the DMA’s objectives. She warned that violators could face fines of up to 10% of their global revenue, escalating to 20% for repeated offenses.

Apple became the first company to be fined under the DMA, with the EU imposing a $1.95 billion penalty. The fine was levied due to Apple’s anti-steering provisions that restricted app developers from suggesting cheaper music subscription options to iOS users. Apple has also faced accusations of imposing higher fees and providing a less secure and responsive user experience. Additionally, the US Department of Justice (DOJ) has filed a lawsuit against Apple over alleged unfair rules targeting crypto apps.

In contrast, Alphabet (Google’s parent company) has asserted its compliance with the digital regulations. Alphabet’s Director of Competition, Oliver Bethell, stated that the company has made significant operational changes in Europe to adhere to the DMA.

The EU investigation is expected to conclude within 12 months, shedding light on whether the tech giants have effectively opened up the digital market for fair competition or simply made adjustments that serve their own interests. These developments mark a significant step in the enforcement of the DMA and signal the EU’s commitment to curbing anti-competitive practices in the tech industry.

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